Smart Contracts on Ethereum

Course Content
Introduction to Ethereum
⦁ What is Ethereum? Welcome to the first lesson of our course, "Introduction to Ethereum for Beginners." Today, we will dive into the world of Ethereum and start exploring this fascinating technology. Ethereum, in the simplest terms, is an open-source, blockchain-based platform that enables developers to build and deploy decentralized applications (dApps). It was proposed in late 2013 by a cryptocurrency researcher and programmer named Vitalik Buterin and development was funded by an online crowdsale in mid-2014. The Ethereum platform has its own cryptocurrency, known as Ether (ETH), which is used primarily for two purposes: as a digital currency, like Bitcoin, and is used inside Ethereum to run applications and even to monetize work. But Ethereum is so much more than just a cryptocurrency. It's a whole ecosystem that allows developers to build and run smart contracts - self-executing contracts with the terms of the agreement directly written into code. This means that Ethereum is not just a platform but also a programming language (Turing complete) running on a blockchain, helping developers to build and publish distributed applications. Ethereum's vision is to create a "World Computer" - a decentralized platform that runs smart contracts: applications that run exactly as programmed without any possibility of downtime, censorship, fraud, or third-party interference. ⦁ The History of Ethereum As we continue our journey into the world of Ethereum, it's important to understand its roots. The history of Ethereum is not just a timeline of events, but a story of innovation, collaboration, and the drive to create a decentralized future. Ethereum was conceived in 2013 by Vitalik Buterin, a programmer involved with Bitcoin. Buterin saw the potential of Bitcoin and blockchain technology but felt that it was limited in scope. Bitcoin was primarily a currency, and its blockchain could not be used for other applications. Buterin proposed a new platform, Ethereum, which would feature a general scripting language and allow developers to create any kind of application on its blockchain. Buterin's proposal was met with enthusiasm, and in January 2014, Ethereum was formally announced at the North American Bitcoin Conference in Miami. The core Ethereum team consisted of Vitalik Buterin, Mihai Alisie, Anthony Di Iorio, and Charles Hoskinson. Later, Joseph Lubin, a co-founder of Ethereum who has been a significant contributor to the ecosystem, founded ConsenSys, a blockchain technology company. In order to fund the development of Ethereum, the team decided to conduct a crowdsale of Ether, Ethereum's native cryptocurrency. The crowdsale took place between July and August 2014 and was a huge success, raising over $18 million. The development of Ethereum was divided into four stages: Frontier, Homestead, Metropolis, and Serenity. Each stage added new features and improvements to the platform. Frontier, the initial stage, was launched in July 2015. It was intended for developers and technical users, allowing them to mine Ether and create smart contracts. Ethereum has had its share of challenges along the way. One of the most significant events in Ethereum's history was the DAO attack in 2016. The DAO (Decentralized Autonomous Organization) was a complex smart contract on the Ethereum blockchain that was hacked, leading to the theft of 3.6 million Ether. This event led to a hard fork in the Ethereum blockchain, resulting in two separate chains: Ethereum (ETH) and Ethereum Classic (ETC). Despite these challenges, Ethereum has continued to grow and evolve. It has become the leading platform for decentralized applications and has paved the way for the Decentralized Finance (DeFi) movement. Today, Ethereum is not just a platform but a vibrant ecosystem of developers, innovators, and users who are shaping the future of the internet. In the next section, we will delve deeper into Ethereum's purpose and how it aims to revolutionize the world of software development and finance. So, let's move on to the next topic: Understanding Ethereum's Purpose. ⦁ Understanding Ethereum's Purpose As we continue our exploration of Ethereum, it's crucial to understand its purpose. Why was Ethereum created, and what problems does it aim to solve? Let's dive into this topic to gain a deeper understanding of Ethereum's mission and vision. Ethereum was created with the intention of taking the blockchain technology that underpins Bitcoin and adding a programming layer on top of it. This layer, known as the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), allows developers to write smart contracts and decentralized applications (dApps) that can run on the Ethereum blockchain. But why is this important? To answer this question, we need to look at the problems that Ethereum is trying to solve. ⦁ Centralization: In the traditional internet, most applications and services are controlled by a few large companies. These companies can censor content, restrict access, and misuse user data. Ethereum aims to solve this problem by creating a decentralized platform where applications are run on a network of computers, not controlled by any single entity. ⦁ Trust: Traditional contracts and transactions require intermediaries, like banks and lawyers, to ensure trust between parties. With Ethereum's smart contracts, the terms are written in code and automatically executed by the blockchain, eliminating the need for intermediaries and reducing the risk of fraud. ⦁ Innovation: By providing a platform for developers to write decentralized applications, Ethereum opens up a whole new world of possibilities for innovation. Developers can create anything from decentralized finance (DeFi) applications to decentralized social networks. Ethereum's purpose, then, is to enable the creation of applications that are not only decentralized but also immutable, transparent, and free from the control of any single party. It's about taking back control from centralized authorities and giving it to the users. In essence, Ethereum seeks to be the backbone of a new, decentralized internet - often referred to as Web 3.0. In this new internet, users control their own data, applications are resistant to censorship, and trust is established not through intermediaries but through code and consensus algorithms. In the next module, we will dive deeper into the technology that makes Ethereum possible - blockchain. We'll explore what blockchain is, how it works, and how it's connected to Ethereum. So, let's move on to the next module: Understanding Blockchain and Ethereum.
Ethereum Blockchain For Beginners.
About Lesson

Smart Contracts on Ethereum

What are Smart Contracts?

Welcome to Module 6, where we’ll delve into one of the most revolutionary aspects of Ethereum: Smart Contracts. This concept is central to understanding how Ethereum works and how it differentiates itself from other blockchain technologies like Bitcoin.

Defining Smart Contracts

In the simplest terms, a smart contract is a self-executing contract with the terms of the agreement directly written into code. They are programs that execute exactly as they are set up to by their creators.
Smart contracts live on the Ethereum blockchain and are a fundamental building block in Ethereum applications. They are like digital vending machines. You drop a token into the vending machine (i.e., the blockchain), and your escrow, driver’s license, or whatever drops into your account. More so, smart contracts not only define the rules and penalties around an agreement in the same way that a traditional contract does, but also automatically enforce those obligations.

The Power of Smart Contracts

Smart contracts eliminate the need for intermediaries in a vast array of applications. For instance, in financial transactions, they can replace lawyers and banks for handling complex transactions.
Imagine a scenario where you want to rent an apartment from a stranger. You can do it through the blockchain by paying in cryptocurrency. You get a receipt which is held in a virtual contract; the owner gives you the digital entry key which comes to you by a specified date. If the key doesn’t come on time, the blockchain releases a refund. If the owner sends the key before the rental date, the function holds it releasing both the fee and key to you and the owner respectively when the date arrives. The system works on the If-Then premise and is witnessed by hundreds of people, so you can expect a faultless delivery.

The Role of Ethereum in Smart Contracts
Ethereum is designed to facilitate software processing using a token system called Ether. Ethereum provides the underlying technology—the architecture and the software—that understands the smart contract and can execute it.
In the next section, we will delve deeper into how smart contracts work and how they are created. We will also explore some real-world applications of smart contracts in various sectors. Stay tuned!
Remember, the world of Ethereum is vast and complex, but with each module, we’re getting closer to understanding this fascinating technology.

Now, let’s dive deeper and understand how these digital contracts actually work.

The Anatomy of a Smart Contract
Smart contracts are like any other traditional contract, but with a twist. They are entirely digital and are coded with a programming language. Ethereum primarily uses a language called ‘Solidity’ for writing smart contracts.

A smart contract includes:

Agreement Terms: These are the rules and conditions that are agreed upon by the parties involved.
Parties Involved: The entities that are part of the contract. These could be people, systems, or other smart contracts.
Contract Execution: The contract is self-executing. Once the conditions are met, the contract executes itself.

The Process of a Smart Contract

The working of a smart contract can be broken down into the following steps:

⦁ Deployment: The smart contract is written in code and then deployed on the Ethereum blockchain. This is done by sending a transaction from an Ethereum account to the network with the contract code in the data field.
⦁ Activation: Once deployed, the contract is dormant until it’s activated by a transaction or message call from another contract.
⦁ Execution: When the pre-determined conditions of the contract are met, the contract self-executes. This could mean transferring Ether from one account to another, or triggering another smart contract.
⦁ Interaction: Smart contracts can interact with other contracts, make decisions, store data, and even interact with other parts of the Ethereum network.

The Power of Automation

The beauty of smart contracts lies in their automation. They automatically execute contractual obligations, reducing the need for intermediaries and lowering the risk of manual errors. This automation is powered by the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which can read and execute smart contracts.

Security and Smart Contracts
One of the key features of smart contracts is their security. Once a contract is deployed on the blockchain, it cannot be altered or tampered with. This immutable nature of smart contracts makes them a secure and reliable solution for executing agreements.

In the next section, we will explore some real-world use cases of smart contracts, to help you understand their practical applications and potential impact on various industries.
Remember, understanding Ethereum and its features like smart contracts might seem challenging, but with each step, you’re becoming more adept at navigating this exciting digital landscape.  This will help you understand their practical applications and potential impact on various industries.

Use Cases of Smart Contracts

We’ve come a long way in understanding Ethereum and its unique features, especially smart contracts. In this section, we will explore some of the practical applications and use cases of smart contracts in various industries. This will help you understand the transformative potential of this technology and its real-world implications.

Financial Services
One of the most prominent use cases of smart contracts is in the financial services industry. They can automate and streamline various processes, such as:
Insurance: Smart contracts can automate claim processing. For instance, in travel insurance, if a flight is delayed or cancelled, the smart contract can automatically trigger a payout to the insured party, eliminating the need for manual claim filing and processing.
Securities Trading: Smart contracts can be used to automate the settlement of securities trades, reducing the time and cost associated with these transactions.

Supply Chain Management

Smart contracts can also revolutionize supply chain management by providing transparency and traceability. They can be used to:
Track Goods: Each product can be tagged with a unique identifier, and its journey through the supply chain can be recorded on the blockchain. A smart contract can automatically verify and record each transaction, providing a transparent and tamper- proof record of the product’s journey.
Automate Payments: When a product reaches a certain point in the supply chain, a smart contract can automatically trigger a payment, reducing the need for manual invoicing and payment processing.

Real Estate Smart contracts can also be used in the real estate industry to automate and streamline various processes, such as:
Property Sales: The process of buying and selling property can be automated using smart contracts. The contract can hold the buyer’s funds in escrow until all conditions are met, and then automatically transfer the property title and funds.
Rental Agreements: Smart contracts can also be used to automate rental agreements. The contract can automatically transfer the rent from the tenant to the landlord each month, and can also include conditions for late payments or damage to the property.

In the healthcare sector, smart contracts can be used to manage patient data, automate insurance claim processing, and even track the distribution of pharmaceuticals.


Smart contracts can also be used in government services to automate processes, reduce bureaucracy, and increase transparency. For example, they can be used for voting systems, public records, and benefits distribution.
These are just a few examples of how smart contracts can be used. The potential applications are virtually limitless, and we are only just beginning to scratch the surface of what’s possible.
In the next module, we will explore the future of Ethereum, including Ethereum 2.0 and the role of Ethereum in decentralized finance (DeFi). Stay tuned!
Remember, the world of Ethereum is vast and complex, but with each module, we’re getting closer to understanding this fascinating technology.

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